每日邮报:血钻8000亿英镑 解放军染指

血钻8000亿英镑 解放军染指

非洲南部群山环绕的一片偏远地带,数百名牵著猛犬的士兵在津巴布韦与莫桑比克边界巡逻,一群矿业专家辛勤工作。这些专家不是非洲人,而是来自千里之外的中国人民解放军。

英国「每日邮报」报导,解放军专家在马兰吉矿区与津巴布韦总统穆加比的亲信一起工作,确保中共政府的投资利益,投资标的是全球争议性最高的商品:血钻石。

交易对双方都有好处,中国的巨型货机一周飞行2次,从马兰吉带著价值不斐的原钻飞往中国。从中国返回的班机则是载满武器与军火,外界称为「武器钻石交易」。货机与飞航行程皆查无纪录。

在中国与津巴布韦一份官方但极为机密的协议中显示,双方掠夺的这个钻石矿区,据信是史上最大的矿区,蕴藏的钻石占全球四分之一,价值8000亿英镑。穆加比有逾15亿英镑的钱藏在亚洲银行的秘密帐户。

津巴布韦高阶情报官员表示,双方签有备忘录:「北京提供武器给我们,我们则让他们挖钻石。」匿名人士表示,如果没有与中国的协议,军政府早已垮台。

许多穆加比手下官兵曾在中国接受酷刑技术的训练,如射杀平民、放狼犬咬人或强暴妇女与孩童。

津巴布韦资深地下记者表示:「穆加比手下军人在朝鲜与南京军校受训,他们是聪明的暴徒。」

记者问一个穆加比军队的消息人士,是否认为这些钻石是血钻石?他大笑道:「这是军事行动,当然是血钻石。」世界新闻编译

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对闯入者杀无赦 军火换血钻

苹果日报/英国《每日邮报》
中国解放军驻津巴布韦钻石矿采血钻,对闯入者杀无赦
解放军身影不只在内地出现,据报到了津巴布韦秘密采血钻。美联社数据图片

在非洲国家津巴布韦(Zimbabwe)东部偏僻小镇,几百名士兵携带狼狗巡查,一发现有人闯入就杀无赦。但这些士兵是黄皮肤的中国解放军。解放军坐镇这里是因中国跟津巴布韦大独裁者穆加贝( Robert Mugabe)进行全球最大血钻交易勾当,把估值 8,000亿英镑(9.7万亿港元)的钻矿给解放军合作开采,用钻石换中国军火,来镇压国民和自肥。

津巴布韦东部邻近莫桑比克的马兰吉(Marange),在群山围绕下外人罕至,却遍地钻石,多到给当地小童用来射雀,四年前这消息传了出去,大批在严重通胀下变成赤贫的专业人士和工人,都涌来掘钻,希望可从此脱贫。但消息也引来穆加贝军队垂涎,两年前血腥占领矿场,杀了 400人。

中国解放军驻津巴布韦钻石矿采血钻,对闯入者杀无赦

马兰吉遍地钻石,四年前掀起民众一窝蜂前来掘钻石。美联社
马兰吉钻矿的藏钻量不但是全球最多,而且质素也极高。

藏钻量值 9.7万亿港元

中国解放军驻津巴布韦钻石矿采血钻,对闯入者杀无赦

穆加贝除了用钻石换中国军火,还让解放军负责马兰吉钻矿的保安,目的是壮大自己实力,为发动新一轮全面夺权作好准备。数据图片

专家相信马兰吉是史上最大钻矿,藏钻量可占全球逾 1/4之多,估计总值 8,000亿镑。不过穆加贝的军队将钻矿据为己有,把那里变成军事区,设下三层围栏,外围布满军营,几百士兵携恶犬巡逻,外人闯入随时被活活打死和撕咬成肉块。
今年2月,有报道指穆加贝的军队在马兰吉秘密建机场,估计是为与中国进行血钻换军火秘密交易。英国《每日邮报》记者马隆( Andrew Malone)最近亲到当地采访,发现这不道德交易的铁证,更发现中国参与的程度很大,解放军直接参与采钻和保安,又参与矿场的血腥恐怖统治。
该报取得的秘密文件,披露获授权采钻的姆巴达( Mbada)钻石公司,挂名老板是穆加贝的前私人直升机机师姆兰加( Robert Mhlanga),姆兰加虽全无采矿经验,但得穆加贝宠信,亲委他出任这要职,公司另外五名合伙人姓名译音分别是邓鸿彦、张士彬、张辉、江兆耀和成清,据说都是中国军官。

运钻石飞机路线不留纪录

马隆又指矿场内,一队队黄皮肤的中国军方采
矿专家在工作。在已建了巨大跑道、先进雷达仪器和控制塔的机场,有「安 12」运输机升降,每周两次,从首都哈拉雷(Harare)以外的秘密军事基地,运载器材和人员到矿场,当中包括八至十名中国军官,负责监视驻矿场的津巴布韦军人,也监视在枪口下像奴隶一样工作的当地工人,运输机飞走时,带着价值百万美元计的未切割钻石离开。
马隆指单是今年,至少有四架飞机从马兰吉的秘密机场,载着这些国家财富直飞中国,但这些飞机的飞行路线,都不留纪录。

道指,中津的军火换钻石秘密协议,是由穆加贝的军头亲信奇温加( Constantine Chiwenga)去年访华时敲定。奇温加连采钻都交给中方,因为他相信中国人比较「守纪律」,可让他和已在亚洲的秘密银行户口收藏逾 15亿镑(182亿港元)的穆加贝,私吞更多钻石收益。
津巴布韦一名情报高官向马隆证实,中国承诺向津巴布韦供应军火:「中国跟津巴布韦签了备忘录,北京给我们武器,我们让他们开采钻石。这是政府之间的协议,是由最高层签署的。」
情报高官不讳言,津军准备用中国军火,向政敌和反对者发动新一轮血腥镇压,又坦承没有这协议,军政府可能要倒台。他更豪言:「你可以写 1,000篇报道,刊登 1,000次,但结果一样。我们有了钻石,就有武器,可尽杀想跟我们争东西的人。」

村民指控解放军 放狗咬死女童

中国解放军驻津巴布韦钻石矿采血钻,对闯入者杀无赦

前来寻钻的民众先被军队血腥驱赶,后在枪口下被奴役。

为了保护钻石矿这条财路,解放军和穆加贝的军队不惜泯灭人性,滥杀无辜。村民指解放军竟然放狗,当着一对父母面前咬死他们的女儿。至今最少有七人因为接近钻矿,被解放军杀死后弃尸荒野。

「这些中国人铁石心肠」

马兰吉矿场隐藏着许多见不得光的秘密。为禁止外界取得任何线索,当局严禁村民走近半步。但小朋友不知危险,一名女童有一次走近矿场,解放军放狗狂咬她,父母迟一步赶到,只能眼睁睁看着女儿被咬死。
村民西班达( Sibanda)也因为走近矿场,被解放军放狗咬,背上还留有伤痕。他说:「这些中国人铁石心肠,他们抢走可以拯救这个国家的钻石,我恨死他们。」
解放军不但向穆加贝提供军火,据说还负责训练穆加贝的军队。津军不少高层成员曾到中国南京军事学院和北韩受训,接受虐待手段。津军射杀平民、奸淫掳掠从不手软。
津巴布韦一名资深记者说:「穆加贝的军队是聪明的刽子手,因此十分可怕。」
穆加贝是黑暗政权,为了打击异见者,设立了多达三个情报组织,雇用 10万多名特工。至今有无数反对派政客被杀害,即使手无寸铁的平民,一旦知道军方的秘密,也会招来杀身之祸。]

津军掩暴虐罪证 血钻出口解禁
中国解放军驻津巴布韦钻石矿采血钻,对闯入者杀无赦

得到国际认可的金伯利计划,始终无法遏止非洲血钻问题。互联网

穆加贝两年前用血腥手段占据马兰吉钻矿,又用钻石跟中国交换军火,但最讽刺的是:打击血钻的「金伯利进程证书计划」( Kimberley Process Certification Scheme),上月竟核准津巴布韦出口钻石。
国际人权组织「人权观察」发现,津军除了杀 400人占据钻矿场,还殴打和强暴村民,强迫他们开矿,至今奴役和杀害了 200名矿工。「金伯利进程证书计划」前年 11月曾下令禁止津巴布韦出口钻石。

没像利比里亚斩数千手臂

但津军杀害的人数,没有像利比里亚总统泰勒( Charles Taylor)那么多,也没有像他一样斩去数千人的手臂,因此成功掩饰罪证。穆加贝政府又把披露虐待和杀害非法矿工事件的人关进监牢,并将矿场列为军事行动地点,力证并非冲突地区。金伯利的监察人员早前检查过该国的矿场后,未能找到把当地列为血钻生产地的证据,因此在上月取消禁止津巴布韦钻石出口的命令。
金伯利解禁后,津巴布韦政府随即秘密拍卖了两批由马兰吉开采的钻石,其中一批 90万卡钻石成功套现 7,200万美元(5.6亿港元)。
即使津巴布韦钻石不获解禁,也有办法透过黑市套现。当局会将未切割的钻石送到中国进行切割打磨,然后透过印度和中东的珠宝商中间人,将钻石在市场套现。亦有中国和黎巴嫩中间人在莫桑比克边境经营走私血钻勾当,令金伯利难以堵截血钻的买卖。
有观察家认为,中国参与血钻买卖,是帮助中国增加外汇,间接资助中国成为超级强国的重要资产。

津巴布韦成最大产钻国
钻石有市有价,成了独裁者争夺的资产。

专家相信马兰吉是史上最大的钻矿,藏钻量占全球逾 1/4,而且钻石质素一流,若全力开采,可令津巴布韦可超越俄罗斯、博茨瓦纳( Botswana)和南非,成为全球最大钻石生产国。
地质学家博克斯特勒( Mark Van Bockstael)指出,根据现时掌握的资料,虽然只有两家公司由去年底开始在马兰吉采钻,但截至今年 5月,已采得钻石 440万卡,但投产量只达一成。

全面开挖年产 4000万卡

比利时钻石商估计,假如全面开挖的话,相信马兰吉每年可生产 4,000万卡钻石,盈利达 20亿美元( 156亿港元)。
每年20亿美元可为津巴布韦带来重大财富;据国际货币基金会( IMF)数字,津巴布韦去年的国内生产总值( GDP)仅 44亿美元(约 343.2亿港元),全力开采马兰吉矿,可令该国收入增加近 40%至 50%之多。

穆加贝独揽钻石横财
中国解放军驻津巴布韦钻石矿采血钻,对闯入者杀无赦

津巴布韦在穆加贝治下,通胀率曾以亿倍计,钞票完全不值钱,直至近一年多才稳定下来。美联社

津巴布韦在穆加贝治下百废待兴,马兰吉钻矿的收入可达国内生产总值 50%,无疑是及时雨。不过这笔天降横财同样令富者越富,使该国离民主越走越远,又令穆加贝一派有钱再兴风作浪,对一般民众可能祸大于福。
穆加贝铁腕统治,令津巴布韦陷入多重危机,超高通胀在前年高峯期达 50亿倍,失业率 80%, 45%人口营养不足,又爆发艾滋病和霍乱,人均寿命减半至35岁。在天怒人怨、选举争议和国际压力下,穆加贝被迫与反对派领袖茨万吉拉伊( Morgan Tsvangirai)分权,让对方做总理。
团结政府总算把通胀稳定下来,致力重建津巴布韦,却遇上西方国家经济疲弱,援助不达标,卖钻石收入成最后救命草。评论员指大量流入市场的现金,可促进就业,这笔收入亦可用于重建农业,避免过去十年被迫花大量外汇进口粮食的教训。

可发动暴力浪潮全面夺权

不过被迫分权的穆加贝,一直等待发难机会。负责管理马兰吉钻矿的部门,由他的津巴布韦非洲民族联盟─爱国阵线(民盟)主管,把守钻矿的军队也是听命于他。有穆加贝亲信称,「这是民盟的救星」,指民盟高层今年上半年加紧掠夺钻石到黑市贩卖,为党和个人赚钱,部份领袖大有斩获,另一些却无份分一杯羮。
分析家和民间领袖亦担心,穆加贝一派有了这笔钱,可再次发动暴力浪潮和镇压,全面夺权,又可靠政治恩惠网延续威权统治,非民主之福。

Mugabe’s darkest secret: An £800bn blood diamond mine he’s running with China’s Red Army

By
Andrew Malone

Dictator: Robert Mugabe's regime claimed the diamond mines as their own, using brutal methods to make sure no-one tried to take the stones

Dictator: Robert Mugabe’s regime claimed the diamond mines as their own, using brutal methods to make sure no-one tried to take the stones

Across a remote tract of southern Africa, naturally ­fortified by mountains and patrolled by hundreds of ­soldiers with dogs trained to tear intruders apart, teams of mining experts are hard at work.

Yet they are not speakers of Shona, the native language of this land on the border between Zimbabwe and Mozambique. No, thousands of miles from home, under a broiling African sun, these slim, pale-skinned figures are members of the Chinese military.

Working alongside henchmen from one of ­Africa’s most murderous regimes — headed by Robert Mugabe — the Chinese are here to ­oversee Beijing’s investment in the world’s most controversial commodity: blood diamonds.

High-ranking officials of China’s People’s ­Liberation Army, they have been striving to escape detection for their role in this blood-thirsty — but hugely lucrative — trade.

For here, carved out of the African bush, is a runway big enough for huge cargo planes. There is also sophisticated radar equipment, a fully-operational control tower and comfortable ­barracks for the Chinese officials overseeing the entire operation. And twice a week, its wings wobbling on waves of thermals rising from this scorching corner of the continent, an Antonov An-12 cargo plane can be heard droning towards the airstrip.

The Antonov — developed by the Soviets and, like so much else, copied by the Chinese and manufactured en masse — carries men and equipment from a secret military airbase ­outside Zimbabwe’s capital Harare, whose job is to tear the gems from the earth. It deposits between eight and ten Chinese military officials, who work overseeing members of the Zimbabwean military, as well as local labour who work at gunpoint in slave conditions.

The departing flights leave with rough, uncut diamonds worth millions.

No flight plans are filed and there are no records of these trips. Such secrecy — and sophisticated organisation — is understandable. This is the centre of diamond fever, and the scene of the biggest diamond heist in history.

Here, at the Marange diamond fields in the far southeast of Zimbabwe, where four planes bound direct for China have thundered out of the secret bush runway already this year, ­astonishing natural wealth has been found in the soil. Indeed, so common are diamonds here that, for many years, local children used the ‘hard
stones’ in catapults to hunt birds, not realising that they were firing unimaginable riches into the sky.

Searching for hope: Zimbabweans rummage through the dirt for diamonds before Mr Mugabe found out about mine. Now the area is considered a military zone - with people beaten to death who enter

Searching for hope: Zimbabweans rummage through the dirt for diamonds before Mr Mugabe found out about mine. Now the area is considered a military zone – with people beaten to death who enter

But stomach-gnawing poverty — life expectancy here has halved to just 35 since Mugabe came to power in 1980 — led to a local diamond rush as news spread that riches were to be found.

Professionals such as doctors, nurses, teachers and plumbers as well as other workers all descended on the fields four years ago, hoping to find enough stones in
the earth to survive as the country’s currency collapsed, with worthless notes blowing through the streets.

Yet all their hopes were crushed when Robert Gabriel Mugabe, the 86-year-old Zimbabwean president, and his ruling military junta, also came to hear of the rumours of such wealth.

Mugabe’s military — many of whom have been given training in torture techniques in China — reacted in characteristically brutal fashion, shooting hundreds of people, setting Alsatian dogs on others and raping women and children.

They wanted the diamonds for themselves. The carnage had the desired effect: the poor and wretched were driven from the fields, leaving the way clear for Zimbabwe’s military chiefs to move in.

Today, the fields are a military zone — and anyone caught there faces being beaten to death.

The reason for the secrecy became apparent during an undercover ­investigation at the fields, where I found conclusive evidence of ­collusion between China and Mugabe.
In an official — but highly-confidential — agreement between the two countries, the Chinese People’s ­Liberation Army and Mugabe’s ­military chiefs are plundering this diamond find, believed to be the ­biggest in the history of the world and worth an estimated £800 billion.

So vast are the riches that diamond experts believe the gems from Marange — in a country of less than ten million people — could account for more than a quarter of all ­diamonds mined around the globe, and could even trigger a massive slump in diamond prices if the stones come on the market and cause a glut.

Mugabe’s military — many of whom have been given training in torture techniques in China — reacted in characteristically brutal fashion, shooting hundreds of people, setting Alsatian dogs on others and raping women and children.

Not that the people of Zimbabwe will see any of these riches.
Instead, in return for the gems, the Chinese are paying Mugabe’s thugs in guns and ammunition, ensuring his regime can stay in power despite ­international condemnation of his atrocities.

The two countries —both with appalling human-rights records — are involved in a vile scramble for loot at Marange, and there is clear ­evidence that Mugabe and his ­generals are also personally stealing millions from the trade.

Secret documents obtained by the Mail reveal that the company given the rights to the diamond fields —called Mbada Diamond Company — is fronted by Mugabe’s trusted former personal helicopter pilot, with ­Chinese military officials as silent partners.

The documents reveal that the pilot — Robert Mhlanga, who has no experience of mining — was personally appointed by Mugabe, with Chinese partners named as Deng Hongyan, Zhang Shibin, Zhang Hui, Jiang Zhaoyao and Cheng Qins. With military camps set up around the perimeter, and three separate fences erected to keep out smugglers and spies, local villagers told me appalling stories of how they have been driven from the land at gunpoint.

Soldiers set their dogs on one girl, who was mauled and killed in front of her parents. The military said this was a warning to others to keep away from the fields; at least seven people caught near the fields were killed by the military in the last month alone and their bodies dumped.

Henchmen: Members of the Chinese military are overseeing the blood diamond mine and Beijing's investment within it

Henchmen: Members of the Chinese military are overseeing the blood diamond mine and Beijing’s investment within it

Lucky Sibanda, a local man, showed me the wounds on his back where he was attacked by dogs after the ­military caught him by the fields.
‘These Chinese men have hard hearts,’ he said. ‘They are taking away diamonds that could save this country. I hate them.’

The disclosures make a mockery of the decision by the Kimberley ­Process — the diamond watchdog set up in the wake of the diamond war in Sierra Leone — to allow Mugabe to sell gems from Marange — which is in the ­remotest, most inaccessible part of his impoverished nation.

And it comes as the issue is once again in the spotlight following ­supermodel Naomi Campbell’s ­controversial appearance at the war-crimes trial of Charles Taylor, the cannibal warlord who funded the bloodshed and slaughter of more than 200,000 people in Sierra Leone in a battle over diamonds.

For, while Mugabe insists these ­diamonds will be for benefit of his people, the truth is they are already being used to fund a war chest designed to keep him and his generals in power, while millions more are siphoned into their ­personal accounts.
That much was made clear to me during a chilling conversation I had as night fell this week near the ­diamond fields.

There, at a meeting in a car on deserted waste ground — set up after tortuous negotiations through a go-between — one of Mugabe’s most senior intelligence chiefs rubbed his hands with glee at the deal with the Chinese, and told me the weapons were being handed out to the ­military in preparation for a brutal new crackdown against opponents.

‘There is a memorandum of understanding between China and ­Zimbabwe — Beijing supplies ­weapons to us, and we allow them to mine diamonds.’

As well as paying a share of the ­diamond profits to Mugabe’s regime, he confirmed that China has agreed to supply military hardware to Zimbabwe.
‘It is a government-to-government deal,’ the official said. ‘It has been signed at the highest level.

‘There is a memorandum of understanding between China and ­Zimbabwe — Beijing supplies ­weapons to us, and we allow them to mine diamonds.’

Mocking the ‘monkeys in the West’ who have been outraged by Mugabe’s brutality, my source — a cold-hearted killer — predicted that the diamond deal with Beijing would mean they could stay in power indefinitely.

‘You can write 1,000 stories, and print them 1,000 times, but it won’t make any difference,’ smirked the official. ‘We have all the diamonds, so we have all the weapons — and we will kill anyone who tries to take anything from us.’

During an hour-long ­conversation, the intelligence source — whose identity I know, but who insisted I do not use his name or rank — also admitted that, without the Chinese pact, the ruling junta would have been driven from power. ‘But now we have all the guns we need,’ he said.

Of course, ­Zimbabwe is not Sierra Leone, where Taylor’s forces drove civilians from diamond fields there, brutally cutting off the arms of thousand of ­people. Mugabe, who is reported to be in poor health, is far too clever for that.

Never killing so many, or so openly, that the West would be forced to intervene, he has become Africa’s second-longest-serving leader by quietly ­terrorising the ­population, killing opponents and using his dreaded secret police, rather than wholesale slaughtering — with the exception of 25,000 members of the Ndebele tribe he murdered in the Eighties.

War crimes: Cannibal warlord Charles Taylor helped fund the bloodshed and slaughter of 200,000 in Sierra Leone in a battle over diamonds.

War crimes: Cannibal warlord Charles Taylor helped fund the bloodshed and slaughter of 200,000 in Sierra Leone in a battle over diamonds.

The country is run as a personal fiefdom for Mugabe and his ­military junta, all of whom live in palatial homes and expect a personal cut from every aspect of the country’s wealth — from road ‘tolls’ raising millions and going to their ­personal accounts, to companies set up to capitalise on the diamond find.

‘Just because they are crooks, doesn’t mean they aren’t clever crooks,’ says one veteran ­underground Zimbabwe journalist. ‘These guys were trained by the North Koreans and at Nanking ­Military Academy in China. They are thugs, but smart — that’s why they are so scary.’

To protect their wealth and grip on power, the junta runs three ­different intelligence services, ­hundreds of thousands strong. Countless opposition politicians have been murdered, not to mention hundreds of white farmers.

A human rights activist was jailed and tortured last month for giving Kimberley Process officials details of abuses at the fields, including the torture and murder of gwejas — ­illegal miners caught in the area.

The arms-for-diamonds deal between Zimbabwe and China was set up by General Constantine ­Chiwenga, a brutal killer and one of the so-called ‘dirty half-dozen’ ­military chiefs who run the country for Mugabe.

Believing the Chinese would be ‘more disciplined’ in extracting diamonds, Chiwenga struck the deal with Beijing during a trip to China last year in order to control sales for his personal benefit and that of Mugabe, who has more than £1.5 billion hidden in secret Asian bank accounts.

Already, an operation is underway to hide the bloodshed and abuses at Marange ahead of a series of ­visits planned by Kimberley ­Monitors to decide whether ­diamond sales should continue.

Mocking those ‘fools’, my source — who reports directly to Chiwenga — sniggered that they would just show officials ‘the good bits’ and would make sure that any traces of brutality were hidden.

Harare: A port close to the city ships soil from the Marange region to China, where it is processed for diamonds

Harare: A port close to the city ships soil from the Marange region to China, where it is processed for diamonds

Asked if he believed these stones are ‘blood diamonds’, the thug laughed again. ‘This is a military operation, not a civilian operation, and that means that of course they are. Are you a fool?’

Not that a worldwide ban on ­Zimbabwean stones would stop the flow of diamonds out of Marange. Gripped by diamond fever, even these Chinese ­communists
are trying to make money on the side.

I watched as two Chinese officials approached illegal diamond ­smugglers at a notorious trading point just outside the Marange perimeter. They left after ­ purchasing uncut gems for their own private sales.

As well as flying diamonds out directly from Marange, other shipments are taken out via a military base near Harare, while lorry loads of soil from the ­diamond fields are trucked overland to a port in Mozambique, and then shipped for processing on Chinese soil.

Asked if he believed these stones are ‘blood diamonds’, the thug laughed again. ‘This is a military operation, not a civilian operation, and that means that of course they are. Are you a fool?’

Once the diamonds are cut, the best stones for rings and other ­jewellery are sold back into the ­diamond network through dealers in India and the Middle East. ­Commercial grade stones are used in industry, helping fuel China’s rise as a superpower.

And, at a town called Manica, just over the border in Mozambique, Chinese and Lebanese dealers run an international smuggling hub, mopping up any diamonds being sold by the few gwejas still brave enough to risk their lives at  the field.

During a visit to one infamous Lebanese dealer, who was ­surrounded by armed guards, I was told simply: ‘I don’t want to talk. If you have diamonds, show me them. If you don’t have any, leave. Now.’

My gruesome military source was correct: it is impossible to police these diamonds, whatever the Kimberley Process decides.

Borders are porous; officials are corrupt. I was offered blood ­diamonds within ten minutes of arriving in Manica.

Perhaps now is the time for a new ethical debate: should diamonds now forever be associated with, quite literally, having blood on one’s hands?

Only consumers can decide; ­Zimbabwe’s dead can’t.

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